Town Hall Square (Vienna)
The inner part of the town square
Street sign town square
The Town Hall Square is located in the first District of Vienna, Inner City. It is named after the erected here (new) Vienna City Hall. Due to its size, design and architecture of the buildings bordering the square it is considered one of the most important places in the center of Vienna.
Vienna City Hall , View from 1891
In the area of today’s town square was once the Josefstädterstraße Glacis, held as a free field of fire meadows before the walls of Vienna, and later the parade and parade ground of the Imperial Army. During the construction of the Ringstrasse from 1858 this military site remained untouched for some time until the army after long efforts of Mayor Cajetan Felder had abstained and the expansion of the city funds could develop a Baulinienplan (building line plan) for the area. During this time, other locations were considered for the Hall.
Now the Town Hall Square, the largest square in the recessed ring road zone was provided. The northern and southern part of the square shaped city gardener Rudolf Siebeck 1872/1873 as City Hall Park, the central square of the axis Town Hall-Burgtheater, was kept free. 1873, the foundation was laid for the construction of the New Town Hall. 1874, work began on the Town Hall at the former Franzensring opposite the Burgtheater and the south of the square adjacent parliament building (north side front: Town Square 6). From 1877 to the new main building of the University of Vienna (southern side front: Town Square 5 ) built. Are installed on the three sides of the square five blocks with nine home numbers (No. 1 to No. 9), the fourth side is bordered by the ring.
In course of time the name of the place changed four times. In 1870 he was created as Town Hall Square, renamed in 1907 after the incumbent Christian Social mayor in Dr.-Karl -Lueger -Platz. The dominant Red Vienna since 1919, this appeared to be inappropriate, as Lueger in Vienna had prevented the universal and equal male suffrage, in 1907 introduced at state level. Therefore, the of a private committee donated Luegerdenkmal under the rule of mayor Karl Seitz was not, as intended by the Committee, in the town square erected but built in 1926 on a previously unnamed square corner Wollzeile/Stubenring and this place in the same year Dr.-Karl-Lueger-Platz named. The town square was returned to its original name . In 1938, the place was again renewed to Adolf Hitler Platz, what was reversed in 1945.
Christmas Market at City Hall
The large space between City Hall and the Burgtheater was used by all the rulers for political rallies. Since 1921, with its current form dates back to 1929 and was interrupted from 1933 to 1945, it is the traditional final rally of the Vienna SPÖ Maiaufmarsches (May-Procession) on 1 In May at the Town Hall Square. In addition, the space is exploited for most of the year for cultural and social events. The most important of them since 1975, the Christmas market in November and December, the Vienna Ice Dream in January and February, the opening of the Vienna Festival in May and open-air cinema screenings with classical music in July and August. The Life Ball at Vienna City Hall refers also to the town square. Traditionally, a since 1959 every year from one of the states erected large Christmas tree as a gift to the federal capital.
Location and characteristics
The Town Hall Square is located between the extended Grillparzerstraße to the north, the University Ring to the east, the extended Stadiongasse in the south and the extended Reichsratsstrasse in the West. Except the ring on which there are no buildings on this street, bear the buildings that are on the place in the wake of these streets, house numbers of the town square. Stadiongasse and Grillparzerstraße end before the court, the Reichsratsstrasse is interrupted by the court.
About two- thirds of the space area of 40,000 m² are taken from the City Hall park, which is divided by a blocked to traffic, very wide access road between the Burgtheater and the Rathaus, which offers space for events, into a northern and southern half. The town square is lined by some of the most important monumental Ringstrassen-Zone in historicist style. In the square itself is a large number of monuments and statues. Thus, the town square is one of the most representative places in Vienna.
The tram lines 1 and D operate on the ring road and have at the City Hall Square opposite the Burg Theatre and at the corner of Parliament stops. Coming from the south and from the ring turning, operates tram line 2 on the southern edge of the town square to Stadiongasse. The individual passes through traffic heading north on the eastern edge of the square on the ring road in the opposite direction behind the Town Hall on the two-line (Zweierlinie). Cycling trails pass off on the ring road and at the Grillparzerstraße and Stadiongasse. Behind the town hall runs the subway line U2 to the City Hall with the subway station as shuttle to City Hall and City Hall Square.
The central building in the middle of the west side of the town square is the City Hall, built in 1873-1883 by Friedrich von Schmidt, New Town Hall, Town Hall called only since about 1970. The powerful, dominating the square building was designed by the Dutch Gothic models. It should express the political power of the strengthened bourgeosie against the monarch and the aristocracy.
The City Council has at the Town Hall no main entrance or direct access to the arcade court, they are located on the side fronts of Felderstraße and Lichtenfelsgasse, another entrance is at the rear front at the Friedrich-Schmidt-Platz. The town hall itself is essentially the so-called People’s Hall on the ground floor of the town hall via a staircase outdoors is accessible (inputs centered under the town hall tower and left and right). The People’s Hall is occasionally used for exhibitions. The outlet is located at the corner of Felderstraße to City Hall basement.
Arcade, Town Hall Square 2-4
Foyer with ceiling painting Apotheosis of Vindobona, Town Hall Square 4
No. 2, 3 and 4: Arcade Shops
The block north of City Hall was built in 1880-1883 by Franz von Neumann. Plan requirement was to equip the buildings (such as on the west side of the Imperial Parliament Street, in the course of which they are) at the town square with arcades. Held in the old German style, houses have remarkable corner projections made with domes. At the central projection there are respectively balconies on herma. The attic floor is decorated with stucco relief female figures. The rib-vaulted arcades are painted with grotesques by Franz and Carl Jobst and equipped with cast iron lanterns. Particularly important are the foyers on No. 4 (and at the back of the block on the Ebendorferstraße 4). Frieze reliefs show the allegories of commerce, the arts and commerce. A large ceiling painting depicts the apotheosis of Vindobona. Lanterns and railings are made of wrought iron.
No. 5: University of Vienna, Main Building
Town Hall Square and front side of the university ‘s main building in 1900
The Town Hall Square side facing the front of the main university building today (2007 )
On the north side of the town square is the front side of the main building of the University of Vienna. The main work of the late phase of the strict historicism was built in 1873-1884 by Heinrich von Ferstel. The 29-axle side facade is broken repeatedly by risalits as well as by half and full columns. Statues of Anton Schmidgruber and Franz Koch standing in relation to the philosophical faculty. The building has no open entrance here .
No. 6: Parliament
On the south side of the town square is the side front of the parliament building, which was built as Reichsratsgebäude for Cisleithania. It is the most important work of the architect Theophil von Hansen, the latter founded 1871-1883 by ancient Greek models. At the Town Hall Square, the Parliament has a covered side entrance, originally a carriage way.
No. 7, 8 and 9 houses with arcades
Dome on the corner risalt, Town Hall Square 7
South of the Town Hall is located one block of houses with arcades, built 1877/1878 of City Hall architect Friedrich von Schmidt and Franz Neumann in old German forms. These were the first houses with arcades of City Hall district. Dominant are domes on corner risalit and central dome, bay windows, balconies, putti frieze and statues of Venus and Mars on the facade. In the rib-vaulted arcades are embedded gates with half column portals and acroterion figures. The lobbies are decorated with stucco ceilings, among other rich and grotesque painting. At No. 8 is located under the arcades the in City Hall circles famous café and pastry shop Sluka.
City Hall Park
At the request of Mayor Felder the City Hall Park was created as a complementary recreation area in the Ring Road zone. It is a strictly historicist Park, which was created as the city park of city gardener Rudolf Siebeck. The green area is north and south of a link road from the Burgtheater on the Ring to the City Hall laid out, which extends space-like in front of City Hall. In each of the two parts is a Rondeau Park with fountains, which are intended to highlight the two Viennese spring water lines and were financed by the builder Antonio Gabrielli.
Under the old trees of the park there are five trees that are designated as natural monuments in Vienna. A lime in the southern part of the park was planted on the occasion of the 50th anniversary jubilee of Emperor Franz Joseph I in 1898, an oak tree, also in the southern part of the park in 1906 for the then incumbent mayor Karl Lueger. Winding paths lead through the two parts of the park. The garden fence is original historicist. In the northern part of the park is a large children’s play area. A 1890 in the southern part of the park built weather house, destroyed during the Second World War, was renewed in 1955 with mosaics of Mary Biljan-Bilger. The modern toilet facilities were designed by Luigi Blau.
Waldmüllerdenkmal (Monument) by Josef Engelhart, 1913
The Town Hall Square is home of a number of monuments, they are described here from the ring road starting.
(Locked) Access from the Burgtheater to City Hall
At the beginning of this approach is, turning off the ring road, left the monument to Theodor Körner, mayor, then President of the Second Republic, by Hilde Uray, bronze statue, 1963,
right of the monument to Karl Seitz, first head of state of the First Republic, then mayor in Red Vienna, by Gottfried Buchberger, bronze statue, 1962.
Directly between the two parts of the park in 1902 eight stone monuments of significant figures in the history of Vienna were placed four at each park side facing each other. They had been established in 1867 on the balustrades of the former Elizabeth Bridge over the river (Wienfluss) on Karlsplatz. When in 1897 the bridge was demolished in this area because of the light rail construction and the resulting vaulting of the Wienfluss, the eight monuments first have been put along the then still in the incision extending new light rail line on the Karlsplatz, where they but heavily by the soot of steam locomotives polluted monuments were popularly called eight chimney sweepers. Therefore, they were transferred to the town square later:
left ( south side):
Margrave Henry II Jasomirgott from the House of Babenberg, by Franz Melnitzky
Duke Rudolf the founder of the House of Habsburg, of Josef Gasser
Ernst Rüdiger von Starhemberg, defender of Vienna (second Turkish siege), by Johann Baptist Fessler
Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach, Baroque architect, Josef Cesar
right (north side):
Duke Leopold the Glorious from the House of Babenberg, by Johann Preleuthner
Niklas Graf Salm, defender of Vienna (first siege of Vienna), by Matthias Purkartshofer
Archbishop Charles Leopold of Kollonitsch, spiritual leader of Vienna (second Turkish siege), Vincenz Pilz
Joseph of Sonnenfels, judicial and administrative reformer of Maria Theresa, by Hanns Gasser (replaced in the Nazi era in 1939 by a statue of the composer Christoph Willibald Gluck, re-erected after 1945)
Next to the town hall (tower), outside of the southern part of the park: replica of the Vienna City Hall man at the top of City Hall tower in scale 1: 1, by Fritz Tiefenthaler, 1985
Southern part of the city hall park (towards Parliament)
At the corner of Park Ring/Parliament, addressed to the ring: Karl Renner, the first Chancellor of the First and first president of the Second Republic, portrait head of Alfred Hrdlicka on monument structure of Josef Krawina, 1965-1967
Josef Popper-Lynkeus, social ethicist, stone bust of Hugo Taglang, 1926. As artists and represented were Jews , the bust was removed in the Nazi regime in 1938, restored in 1951 according to the plaster model.
Johann Strauss (father ) and Joseph Lanner, statues of Franz Seifert, 1905, Art Nouveau, the bronze sculptures stand in front of a curved wall with marble reliefs of ball scenes and a poem by Edward von Bauernfeld. This concept and the architecture created Robert Oerley .
Northern part of the city hall park (towards the University)
Ferdinand Georg Waldmüller, marble monument of Josef Engelhart, 1913 , Art Nouveau
Ernst Mach, physicist, of Heinz Peteri, 1926
Adolf Schärf, vice chancellor, then president of the Second Republic, bronze bust of Alfred Hrdlicka, 1985
The most recent monument in the park, built in 1993, commemorates the wartime destruction of Vienna in 1945 and was by Hubert Wilfan under the title Yesterday – Today created from stone.